Orch OR-Quantum





Anesthetics act in quantum channels in brain microtubules to prevent consciousness.
Curr Top Med Chem. 2015;15(6):523-33.


Hameroff S, Commentary on Stuart Kauffman's Quantum Criticality at the Origins of Life in John Hewitt's Quantum Criticality in life's proteins (update), in Phys.org - April 15, 2015.



Hameroff S, Penrose R,  Consciousness in the universe: A review of the 'Orch OR' theory.  Phys Life Rev, 2014; Mar 11(1):39-78.    Science Direct 


Hameroff Penrose - Consciousness in the Universe-A Review of the Orch OR Theory - 2013 - Physics of Life Reviews.pdf


Hameroff S,  Quantum walks in brain microtubules-a biomolecular basis for quantum cognition? Top Cogn Sci, 2014; Jan; 6(1):91-7.


Hameroff S, Penrose R,  Reply to Seven Commentaries on “Consciousness in the Universe: Review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory".  Physics of Life Reviews, 2014; 11:94–100.


Hameroff S, Penrose R, Reply to Criticism of the 'Orch OR qubit' - Orchestrated objective reduction is scientifically justified. Physics of Life Reviews, 2014; 11(1):104-112


Hameroff Stuart, Consciousness, Microtubules and "Orch-OR": A 'Space-time' Odyssey, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 21, 3-4, 2014, pp 126-153 pdf.


Hameroff S, Penrose R, Consciousness in the universe: A review of the 'Orch OR' theory. Phys Life Rev, 2014; Mar 11(1):39-78.   Science Direct     pdf



Hameroff SR, Quantum mathematical cognition requires quantum brain biology: the "Orch OR" theory.  Behav Brain Sci, 2013; Jun; 36(3):287-90. 


Hameroff S, Comment on: Capolupo, Freeman, Vitiello, A tale of two fields: comment on "Dissipation of 'dark energy' by cortex in knowledge retrieval"  Phys Life Rev, 2013; Mar;10(1):95-6; discussion 112-6.



Hameroff S, How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will. Front Integr Neurosci, 2012; 6:93, Oct 12.     link to Frontiers pdf


Craddock T, St George M, Freedman H, Barakat K, Damaraju S, Hameroff S, Tuszynski J, (2012)  Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia, PLOS One, 2012; June 25.



Ebner M, Hameroff S, Lateral information processing by spiking neurons: a theoretical model of the neural correlate of consciousness, Comput Intell Neurosci, 2011; Oct 23.


Hameroff S, Consciousness in the Universe' Journal of Cosmology; Vol. 14. 2011 Link to Table of Contents; Book Chapter



Hameroff SR, Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA, "Memory bytes" - molecular match for CaMKII phosphorylation encoding of microtubule lattices. J Integr Neurosci, 2010; Sep;9(3):253-67.


Hameroff Stuart, The “conscious pilot”—dendritic synchrony moves through the brain to mediate consciousness, Journal of Biological Physics, January 2010, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 71-93 ...


Cognitive brain functions including sensory processing and control of behavior are understood as “neurocomputation” in axonal–dendritic synaptic networks of “integrate-and-fire” neurons. Cognitive neurocomputation... Springer Link     (Download pdf)     View Article



Hameroff Stuart, The Brain is Both Neurocomputer and Quantum Computer Cognitive Science 31:1035-1045, 2007.


Hameroff Stuart, Consciousness, Neurobiology and Quantum Mechanics: The_Case for a Connection, In: The Emerging Physics of Consciousness, edited by Jack Tuszynski Springer-Verlag, 2007 .pdf



Hameroff S, Consciousness Whitehead and Quantum Computation in the Brain: Panprotopsychism Meets the Physics of Fundamental Spacetime Geometry, In: Whitehead Process Compendium, M Weber (Ed) 2003.


Hameroff Stuart, Time Consciousness and Quantum events in Fundamental Spacetime Geometry, In: The Nature of Time: Physics, Geometry and Perception - Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop, R. Buccheri and M. Saniga (Eds)  2003.



Hagan Scott,_Hameroff Stuart,_Tuszynski Jack,  Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? Decoherence and Biological Feasibility, Physical Reviews E., 2002, 65:061901.



Hameroff Stuart, Consciousness, The Brain and Spacetime Geometry. From the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, special issue: Cajal and consciousness, Scientific Approaches to Consciousness on the Centennial of Ramon y Cajal's Textura,  Marijuan P., eds, Volume 929, April 2001.


Woolf Nancy J, Hameroff Stuart R, A Quantum Approach to Visual Consciousness,Trends in Cognitive Science, 2001.




Penrose R, Hameroff S, Quantum Computation In Brain Microtubules?  The Penrose-Hameroff "Orch OR" model of consciousness. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London (1998) (A) 356:1869-1896     penrose-hameroff-1998.pdf


Hameroff SR, Kazniak AW, Scott AC eds., Toward-a-Science-of-Consciousness-II TSC Second Tucson Discussions 1998.


Funda-Mentality_Is the Conscious Mind Subtly Linked to a Basic Level of the Universe? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2(4):119-127 1998.




Hameroff S, Penrose R, Conscious Events as Orchestrated Space Time Selections Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3(1):36-53,  1996


Hameroff S, Penrose R, Conscious events as orchestrated space-time selections, 1996   Abstract   Full Text



Hameroff S,_Penrose R,  Orchestrated Objective Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules - A Model For Consciousness? in Hameroff SR, Kazniak, AW and Scott AC, (Eds.) Toward a Science of Consciousness TSC-I First Tucson Discussions and Debates, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA pp 507-540,  1996.   




Roger Penrose

wikipedia link

Penrose, Introduction: science at the turn of the millennium

Roger Penrose

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A: 1999 357 3197-3203; DOI: 10.1098/rsta.1999.0489. Published 1 December 1999

Penrose R, Quantum computation entanglement and state reduction Phil Trans R Soc Lond 1998.

Penrose Quantum computation entanglement and state reduction Phil Trans R Soc Lond 1998.pdf

Penrose R, The Emperor's New Mind, 1989

Penrose R, Shadows of the Mind, 1994